Vol. 11 No. SP
Survey and detection of the diseases of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in Assam
Abstract: Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) a chilli pepper formerly recognized as the worlds’s hottest chilli by Guinness book of World Records (Bosland and Baral, 2007). It is extensively grown in North Eastern region of India, predominantly in the states of Assam, Nagaland and Manipur. Field surveys were carried out in Bhut Jolokia growing district of Assam (Sivasagar, Jorhat, Golaghat). Among the diseases 10 per cent showed fungal infection, 3 per cent showed bacterial infection and 60 per cent showed viral infection. Five fungal diseases on Bhut Jolokia, Anthacnose / Fruit rot caused by Colletotrichum capsici, Die- back caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Stem rot and wilt caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Collar Rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani, leaf spot caused by Corynespora cassicola were identified. Bacterial wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum was observed on Bhut Jolokia at later stages of crop growth. The average virus disease incidence after 15-20 days after transplanting in the farmers field ranged from 8 to 78%. Four different viruses were identified based on symptomatology, transmission, host range and serological assays. These diseases were identified as Mosaic caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Leaf and Stem necrosis disease caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) and leaf curl disease caused by Chilli leaf curl virus (ChLCV). CMV, PVY and TSWV were easily transmitted by grafting and by sap inoculation to Bhut Jolokia . However, ChLCV is transmitted by grafting. Sap inoculation failed to produce any symptom. The presence of PVY, CMV and TSWV were confirmed using DAS-ELISA. The highest incidence of PVY (87.50 per cent) followed by CMV (75.00 per cent) and TSWV (62.50 per cent) were recorded in Golaghat district. Lowest infection was recorded at Sivasagar district for all the four viruses. However ChLCV incidence was low in the surveyed field.
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