Vol. 14 No. 1
Studies on heterosis and heterobeltiosis for seed yield and yield attributing traits of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in high saline soil of West Bengal
Author(s): S. S. LAKSHMAN, N. R. CHAKRABORTY, M. K. GODKE AND P. C. KOLE
Abstract: Increasing seed and oil yields is the top priority of most sunflower breeding programs. Getting benefit from use of heterosis is the main purpose in sunflower hybrid breeding. The objectives of this study were to determine performance of sunflower varieties and to measure the vigor of sunflower hybrids. In 2014-15 and 2015-16, sunflower hybrids were evaluated for four important yield components, yield performance, standard and regular heterosis, and heterobeltiosis, in West Bengal agro climatic conditions. Based on observations in this research, Heterobeltiosis for seed yield ranged between 36.0 and 94per cent in 2015-16 and 40.2-104per cent in the year-2014-15 respectively. The standard heterosis for seed yield range from -8.8 to 25.9per cent. Based on observations in this research, seed yield of hybrids, the maximum hybrid vigor (heterobeltiosis) was measured in the PET-2-7-1A X EC-601751, CMS-103A X EC-623023, respectively as heterosis 94.5 and 89 per cent in 2015- 16 and 104 and 102 per cent, respectively in the 2014-15 growing season. Negative heterotic values for hull rate are preferred by sunflower breeders. Maximum negative values of standard heterosis for hull rate, both in 2014-15 and in 2015-16 (-12.9% and -11.9%, respectively), were registered in 852A X EC-623016(-16%) and PET-89-1A X EC-601878 (-15.7) in 2015-16. Lower hull rate in the aforementioned crosses was accompanied by higher heterobeltiosis and regular heterosis values for this trait too. Standard heterotic values measured in the hybrids for low hull content were recorded in the hybrids CMS-103 A X EC- 601878(-26%) and PET-89-1A X EC-601878(-19%), respectively. Heterosis for oil yield was as high as this for seed yield, especially in 2014-15. The values of heterobeltiosis for seed yield was changed between 40 and 105 per cent, The values of heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis changed between 36 and 94 per cent, and -8.8 to 25.9 per cent.respectively in the year 2015-16. Maximum values of 86.55 and 85 per cent for heterobeltiosis were recorded for oil yield in PET-2-7-1A XEC-601751 in 2015-16. The maximum standard heterosis (31.2%) was registered in the cross CMS-853 A X EC-623027 (M) followed by PET-2-7-1A XEC-601751(29.6%) and CMS-853 AX EC 623023(23.9%) respectively in the growing season of 2015-16.Among inbred lines, the female 853A,CMS-852-A and the male EC-623027 and EC-601878 exhibited higher hybrid vigor than the others.
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