Morpho-biochemical and molecular insights of fibre quality in jute: A review update
Jute fibre is an inexpensive, biodegradable and eco-friendly natural bast fibre. Jute fibre has both traditional and industrial applications. The commercial demand for improved jute fibre is gaining importance to replace the synthetic fibres. The use of jute fibre is restricted because of its high lignin content and low cellulose content. As evident from published literatures, both the classical and molecular approaches have been used to improve the fibre quality. The strength, fineness, and luster of the fibre are considered as the fibre quality parameters. During the recent past, researchers reported the key genes and enzymes that are playing a major role in the lignin pathways like Monolignol pathway, Shikimate-aromatic amino acid pathway and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. A total of 38 isoforms of 16 genes in upstream of Shikimate-aromatic amino acid pathway and 43 isoforms of 10 genes in the downstream of Monolignol pathway have been reported. Down regulations of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, coumarate 3-hydroxylase, ferulate 5-hydroxylase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase genes associated with lignin biosynthesis have been reported in substantial reduction of the lignin content in jute. In cellulose biosynthesis, the major identified gene families are Sucrose synthase, Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase and Cellulose synthase (CesA), having important roles in fibre formation. The present review is aimed to present a detailed morphobiochemical and molecular insights of jute fibre quality that will help the breeders to fix the breeding plan in enhancing the quality of jute fibre.