Vol. 10 No. 1
Biodiversity and breeding of grapes : a study in Azerbaijan
Abstract: A detailed investigation about the biodiversity and breeding of grapes was undertaken at Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan is a rich source of plant genetic resources due to diverse soil and climatic condition. Vine growing is one of the most ancient and widely adopted culture to support the economic life of the people. Different information indicated that the history of cultured vine growing in Azerbaijan has at least 7 millenium. Scientist and tresearchers indicated that centre of origin of grape in Azerbaijan and Southern Caucasus. Wild grape [V. Vinifera L. Subsq. sylvestris (C.C. Gmel) Hegi] spreads on the teritory of Azerbaijan from 12m below sea level to 200m above sea level. There are two kinds of wild grape: Typica negr (with hair)and Aberrans negr (hairless). At present more than 600 lacal and introduced grape varieties are spread in Azerbaijan, of which more than 100 varieties are threatened. White, red, black and pink coloured table, technical and universal grape varieties are cultivated. Wide variation in duration for maturity ( 120 to more than 171 days) was observed among the types. Plartid DNA sequence variation study revealed presence of three polymorphic sites in DNA: on in tra H – psp A intergenic region and two in rpl 16 intron area. The varieties were divided into four different haplotypes: AAA, ATT, GTA and ATA. Some resistant varieties against mildew, oidinm and grey rot diseases identified. Salt and drought tolerant varieties also reported. Most of the local threatened varieties are conserved for utilizing them in future improvement programme.
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