Vol. 13 No. 2
Residues of pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen, quizalofop-ethyl and imazethapyr in groundnut and their persistence in soil
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh on medium black calcareous soil during kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 to determine the residues of pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen, quizalofop-ethyl and imazethapyr herbicides in the soil and groundnut plant. The Analysis of QuEChERS procedure using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analytical methods with average recoveries ranged from 85.6 to 95.5 per cent at three spiking levels (0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 μg g-1) revealed that the residue of pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and quizalofop-ethyl persisted both in soil and plant upto 30 days after harvest of the crop. Afterwards, the residues were detected below the detection limits (BDL). Persistence of imazethapyr residues in soil were detected below the limit of quantification however, in plant it persists to the levels of 0.0016, 0.0015 and 0.015 μg g-1 at 30, 60 DAS and at harvest of groundnut, respectively, which were higher than the lowest detectable limit (0.01 μg g-1). Residues of all four herbicides in kernel were detected far below the tolerance limits approved by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India and European Union standards and hence, risks associated with dietary exposure of these herbicides is considered safe for human consumption point of view. Being short duration nature of persistence in soil and plant, these herbicides were also safe for the environment as well as for rotational crops. However, a pre-harvest interval (PHI) between last application and harvest for these herbicides should be 40 to 90 days.
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