Weed science is the one of the discipline in agricultural sciences which mainly concerns with plants that may be considered weeds, their effects on human activities, and management. Weed science unlike entomology and pathology is very recent discipline of agriculture considered important in 20th century and since then attention is being paid to evolve weed control technologies for higher crop production under safe environment. The role of weed management under changing modern agricultural scenario has become more important considering the higher labour wages as well as non availabity of labour at peak time of availability. The research on use of herbicides continued since 1960 and between 1980 and 1990 many herbicides having lower doses of application compare to earlier herbicides and also herbicide resistant crop came into existence. Herbicides residues in soil and plant are also of great concern considering health and environmental hazards. Continued application of same herbicides in same field invite resistant biotype which are difficult to control. Hence, development of eco friendly technology is the call of day. There is need to go strengthen weed science research under changing agricultural scenario under climate change, conservation agriculture, precision farming, herbicide resistance weeds, integrated weed management, weed management in pulses and oilseed crops, use of un manned aerial vehicle, plant image science for weed control to mitigate the challenges of modern agriculture.